Making Race in Early American Art and Maps - Andrew Gu

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1

Making Race in Early American Maps
Making Race in Early American Maps

2

Content Warning
Content Warning

3

Disclaimer
Disclaimer

4

South African Population Registration Act of 1950, Section 1.
South African Population Registration Act of 1950, Section 1.

5

Making Race: A Definition
Making Race: A Definition

6

Razza
Razza

7

Thomas Blundeville, The foure chiefest offices belonging to horsemanship, 1609
Thomas Blundeville, The foure chiefest offices belonging to horsemanship, 1609

8

Bugatti or Lamborghini?
Bugatti or Lamborghini?

9

Which horse is which?
Which horse is which?

10

Richard Blome, The gentlemans recreation, 1686. Williams College Special Collections.
Richard Blome, The gentlemans recreation, 1686. Williams College Special Collections.

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American Colonial Maps: Our Window
American Colonial Maps: Our Window

12

Thesis 
Thesis 

13

Willem Blaeu, Guinea, first published 1634. From the collection of Rich Breiman.
Willem Blaeu, Guinea, first published 1634. From the collection of Rich Breiman.

14

Anonymous,
Anonymous, "Homo sylvestris / Orang-outang," in Nicolaes Tulp, Observationum Medicarum, 1641.

15

G. Malcolm Lewis,
G. Malcolm Lewis, "Reconstruction of a Virginia Algonquian Cosmography," 1998. 

16

South Carolina Deerskin Map, 1721, Library of Congress Copy.
South Carolina Deerskin Map, 1721, Library of Congress Copy.

17

Joan and Cornelius Blaeu, Atlas Frontispiece, 1640. From the collection of Rich Breiman.
Joan and Cornelius Blaeu, Atlas Frontispiece, 1640. From the collection of Rich Breiman.

18

"Guiana is a country that hath yet her maidenhead." Walter Raleigh, 1595.

19

Willem Blaeu, Americae Nova Tabula, 1635. From the collection of Rich Breiman.
Willem Blaeu, Americae Nova Tabula, 1635. From the collection of Rich Breiman.

20

Jean-Baptiste Nolin, II, L’Amerique dressée sur les relations les plus recentes, 1740. Library of Congress.
Jean-Baptiste Nolin, II, L’Amerique dressée sur les relations les plus recentes, 1740. Library of Congress.

21

[The Oztoticpac lands map], ca. 1540. Library of Congress. 
[The Oztoticpac lands map], ca. 1540. Library of Congress. 

22

Juan de Zumárraga, Bishop and Inquisitor of New Spain
Juan de Zumárraga, Bishop and Inquisitor of New Spain

23

William Channing Woodbridge,
William Channing Woodbridge, "Isothermal Chart," in Modern Atlas (1831). 

24

William Channing Woodbridge,
William Channing Woodbridge, "Moral and Political Chart of the Inhabited World," in Modern Atlas (1831). 

25

Race is not natural.
Race is not natural.

26

Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

27

Bibliography
Bibliography

28

Bibliography: A-D
Bibliography: A-D

29

Bibliography: E-H
Bibliography: E-H

30

Bibliography: H-K
Bibliography: H-K

31

Bibliography: K-M
Bibliography: K-M

32

Bibliography: M-R
Bibliography: M-R

33

Bibliography: S-V
Bibliography: S-V

34

Appendix
Appendix

35

Definition: Racism (David Nirenberg)
Definition: Racism (David Nirenberg)

36

Definition: Race (David Nirenberg)
Definition: Race (David Nirenberg)

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Definition: Race (Geraldine Heng)
Definition: Race (Geraldine Heng)

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John Ross - 1872DUPLICATED
John Ross - 1872DUPLICATED

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South Carolina Deerskin Map, 1721, Detail from Original Version in the British Library.
South Carolina Deerskin Map, 1721, Detail from Original Version in the British Library.

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[ 2024-06-14 07:00:36 ] De Bry, Admiranda narratio, page with cannibals
[ 2024-06-14 07:00:36 ] De Bry, Admiranda narratio, page with cannibals

41

[ 2024-06-12 18:24:42 ] Guaman Poma Map of the Inca Empire, c. 1615
[ 2024-06-12 18:24:42 ] Guaman Poma Map of the Inca Empire, c. 1615

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E507 - Maps - Americas - 0387DUPLICATED
E507 - Maps - Americas - 0387DUPLICATED

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DUPLICATED from E189 – Africa Maps – 0299
DUPLICATED from E189 – Africa Maps – 0299

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DUPLICATED from E34 - Africa Nova Descriptio 1635 
DUPLICATED from E34 - Africa Nova Descriptio 1635 

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[ 2024-06-12 18:02:20 ]Map of Cholula, Relaciones Geográficas, 1581
[ 2024-06-12 18:02:20 ]Map of Cholula, Relaciones Geográficas, 1581

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Samuel Augustus Mitchell, Mitchell's School Geography, 1845, pages 42-45. Williams College Special Collections.
Samuel Augustus Mitchell, Mitchell's School Geography, 1845, pages 42-45. Williams College Special Collections.

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1728 Colossal Kings Plate 1 DUPLICATED
1728 Colossal Kings Plate 1 DUPLICATED

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1728 Colossal Kings Plate 2 DUPLICATED
1728 Colossal Kings Plate 2 DUPLICATED

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E374 - Various Rich Breiman - i16261-16262DUPLICATED
E374 - Various Rich Breiman - i16261-16262DUPLICATED

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E374 - Various Rich Breiman - i16264-16265DUPLICATED
E374 - Various Rich Breiman - i16264-16265DUPLICATED

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E374 - Various Rich Breiman - i16307DUPLICATED
E374 - Various Rich Breiman - i16307DUPLICATED

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E504 - Various Rich Breiman - i064DUPLICATED
E504 - Various Rich Breiman - i064DUPLICATED

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E504 - Various Rich Breiman - i053DUPLICATED
E504 - Various Rich Breiman - i053DUPLICATED

54

E504 - Various Rich Breiman - i0700214DUPLICATED
E504 - Various Rich Breiman - i0700214DUPLICATED

55

E529 - Atlas 2 - 00179DUPLICATED
E529 - Atlas 2 - 00179DUPLICATED

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[ 2024-06-12 17:54:41 ]Nuremberg Map of Tenochtitlan, 1524
[ 2024-06-12 17:54:41 ]Nuremberg Map of Tenochtitlan, 1524

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[ 2024-06-12 17:57:11 ]Foundational Plan of San Juan de la Frontera, 1562
[ 2024-06-12 17:57:11 ]Foundational Plan of San Juan de la Frontera, 1562

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[ 2024-06-14 07:02:59 ] De Bry, Admiranda Narratio, Pictish Warrior
[ 2024-06-14 07:02:59 ] De Bry, Admiranda Narratio, Pictish Warrior

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[ 2024-06-14 07:22:41 ]
[ 2024-06-14 07:22:41 ] "Ould Virginia," 1624

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E529 - Atlas 2 - 00181DUPLICATED
E529 - Atlas 2 - 00181DUPLICATED

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E529 - Atlas 2 - 00161DUPLICATED
E529 - Atlas 2 - 00161DUPLICATED

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E529 - Atlas 2 - 00160DUPLICATED
E529 - Atlas 2 - 00160DUPLICATED

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Waldseemuller Carta Marina 1516 whole image from CVD 2023-09-08DUPLICATED
Waldseemuller Carta Marina 1516 whole image from CVD 2023-09-08DUPLICATED

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[ 2024-06-12 18:52:45 ] A compleat description of the province of Carolina in 3 parts : 1st, the improved part from the surveys of Maurice Mathews & Mr. John Love : 2ly, the west part by Capt. Tho. Nairn : 3ly, a chart of the coast from Virginia to Cape Florida, c. 1711
[ 2024-06-12 18:52:45 ] A compleat description of the province of Carolina in 3 parts : 1st, the improved part from the surveys of Maurice Mathews & Mr. John Love : 2ly, the west part by Capt. Tho. Nairn : 3ly, a chart of the coast from Virginia to Cape Florida, c. 1711

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[ 2024-06-11 23:33:44 ]John Smith, “New England,” 1616.
[ 2024-06-11 23:33:44 ]John Smith, “New England,” 1616.

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[ 2024-06-11 23:35:35 ] William Hubbard and John Foster, “A Map of New-England, Being the first that ever was here cut,” 1677.
[ 2024-06-11 23:35:35 ] William Hubbard and John Foster, “A Map of New-England, Being the first that ever was here cut,” 1677.

67

[ 2024-06-11 18:57:23 ]
[ 2024-06-11 18:57:23 ]

68

[ 2024-06-11 23:47:19 ]Don Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco, “Plano geographico de la tierra descubierta y demarcada,” 1778.
[ 2024-06-11 23:47:19 ]Don Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco, “Plano geographico de la tierra descubierta y demarcada,” 1778.

69

[ 2024-06-12 22:32:14 ] Aikon Aushabuc's Gestural Map, 1761
[ 2024-06-12 22:32:14 ] Aikon Aushabuc's Gestural Map, 1761

70

Las Castas
Las Castas
Image 1 of 70 | e559 | i26745 | 1920x1080px Making Race in Early American Maps

Content warning: 

  • Racist images
  • Depictions of nudity
  • References to sexual violence

Feel free to skip or step out at any time.

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Image 2 of 70 | e559 | i26787 | 1920x1080px Content Warning
  • Racist images
  • Depictions of nudity
  • References to sexual violence
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Image 3 of 70 | e559 | i26747 | 1920x1080px Disclaimer
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Image 4 of 70 | e559 | i26505 | 1728x1797px South African Population Registration Act of 1950, Section 1.

Section 1 (Definitions), page 277 of one of the South African apartheid regime's foundational laws.

This document (Act No. 30 of 1950, also known as the Population Registration Act, 1950) is available at South African History Online
As of June 24, 2024, it should be the first result of this search query in the South African History Online archives. 

For more information on the motivations behind the Population Registration Act and its impacts on South African society, see:
Posel, Deborah. “What’s in a Name? Racial Categorisations under Apartheid and Their Afterlife." Transformation: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa 47 (2001): 50-74. https://d.lib.msu.edu/tran/445/OBJ/download. 

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Image 5 of 70 | e559 | i26788 | 1920x1080px Making Race: A Definition
  • a project dedicated to making physical appearance communicate a set of values and behaviors that are (allegedly) passed down through reproduction.
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Image 6 of 70 | e559 | i26793 | 1920x1080px Razza

A Spanish word, razza first entered European vocabularies in the 1400s.

What did it mean?

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Image 7 of 70 | e559 | i26695 | 3024x4032px Thomas Blundeville, The foure chiefest offices belonging to horsemanship, 1609

Image by Andrew Gu. Book from Williams College Special Collections.
https://librarysearch.williams.edu/permalink/01WIL_INST/1faevhg/alma991010601079702786. 

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Image 8 of 70 | e559 | i26790 | 1920x1080px Bugatti or Lamborghini?

Which is which?

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Image 9 of 70 | e559 | i26699 | 1450x1445px Which horse is which?

These are a Spanish horse, a Flemish horse, and a North African horse. 

Which is which?

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Image 10 of 70 | e559 | i26506 | 3024x4032px Richard Blome, The gentlemans recreation, 1686. Williams College Special Collections.

Picture by Andrew Gu.

Manuals like this were designed to help noblemen understand their animal collections.

Link: https://librarysearch.williams.edu/permalink/01WIL_INST/1pb6e7c/alma991010716009702786. 

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Image 11 of 70 | e559 | i26799 | 1920x1080px American Colonial Maps: Our Window
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Image 12 of 70 | e559 | i26794 | 1920x1080px Thesis 

Native Americans and Europeans made sense of one another by referencing their own traditions around the Other.

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Image 13 of 70 | e559 | i26420 | 7257x5389px Willem Blaeu, Guinea, first published 1634. From the collection of Rich Breiman.

Courtesy of Rich Breiman, this is a 1634 map of "Guinea," or the West African coast, by the Dutch Cartographer Willem Blaeu and dedicated to "Nicolao" (Nicolaes) Tulp.

What does Blaeu choose to highlight as important in this map?

For more information about the Blaeu family of cartographers and Willem Blaeu's involvement in Dutch colonial projects, see:
Smith, Cynthia. "The Blaeu Family of Cartographers: A Resource Guide." Library of Congress. Last modified 17 June 2022. https://guides.loc.gov/blaeu. 

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Image 14 of 70 | e559 | i26792 | 1216x1904px Anonymous, "Homo sylvestris / Orang-outang," in Nicolaes Tulp, Observationum Medicarum, 1641.

This engraving, probably depicting the female Angolan chimpanzee brought to Amsterdam in 1630, accompanied Nicolaes Tulp's 1641 description of the "orang-outang." Later naturalists would republish this image over and over until it had become the European image of the chimpanzee. 

Looking at the chimpanzee perched atop the title in Blaeu's map, there's a good chance that Blaeu's and Tulp's engravers were using the same source image.

Sources:
Katherine Kalsbeek, Michiel Roscam Abbing, and Charlotte Beck, "Unravelling a Myth: Tulp’s Chimpanzee and Rembrandt," Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis (2022): 27-37, https://doi.org/10.48296/KvhR2022.03. 

Silvia Sebastiani, "A ‘monster with human visage’: The orangutan, savagery, and the borders of humanity in the global Enlightenment," History of the Human Sciences 32, no. 4 (2019): particularly pages 82-3.

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Image 15 of 70 | e559 | i26510 | 2733x1467px G. Malcolm Lewis, "Reconstruction of a Virginia Algonquian Cosmography," 1998. 

Due to their deliberate destruction by Europeans, their perishable materials, and their often-sacred status, most of the Native North American maps from the colonial period which are available today can only be seen through European eyes: either via travelers' descriptions or European government copies.

On the left is a model by map historian G. Malcolm Lewis based on descriptions from the English explorer (of Pocahantas fame) John Smith's 1607 adventures while under Algonquian captivity. Smith described a three-day ceremony of dancing and laying out circles denoting different boundaries of the community. 

On the right is a 1624 European depiction (to accompany John Smith's published adventures) of the same event. Much was lost in translation.

The right image comes from John Smith, The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles: With the Names of the Adventurers, Planters, and Governours from their First Beginning An° 1584 to This Present 1624 (London: Michael Sparkes, 1624). Professor Lewis copied this image from a photograph provided by the Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.  You can view the image in its full context on page 18a, "Ould Virginia," at https://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/smith/ill1.html. 

Source:
G. Malcolm Lewis, "Maps, Mapmaking, and Map Use by Native Americans," in David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis, eds. The History of Cartography, vol. 2, book 3: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies, 51-182 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), in particular pp. 51-55, 69-71. https://press.uchicago.edu/books/HOC/HOC_V2_B3/Volume2_Book3.html. 
The screenshot comes from page 70.

I thank Professor Susan Schulten for directing me toward G. Malcolm Lewis' work.

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Image 16 of 70 | e559 | i26489 | 3539x2433px South Carolina Deerskin Map, 1721, Library of Congress Copy.

The description for this map reads: “This map describing the situation of the Several Nations of Indians to the NW of South Carolina was copyed from a Draught drawn & painted on a Deer skin by an Indian Cacique and presented to Francis Nicholson Esq. Governour of South Carolina by whom it is most humbly Dedicated To His Royal Highness George Prince of Wales.”

Oriented with the Atlantic coast on the left and the bottom, this map depicts 13 Carolina Indian communities and the English colonies of Virginia and Charleston, South Carolina, as well as the relationships between them.

Earlier historians, namely Gregory A. Waselkov and Mark Warhus, have attributed this map to the Catawba Indians. However, in 2013, Professor Ian Chambers, then at the University of Idaho, made the case for a Cherokee origin. This exhibit follows Chambers' interpretation.

The map shown here is actually the Library of Congress' copy of an "original" copy stored in the British Library (next image).

Image from https://www.loc.gov/item/2005625337/.

Sources for this map:

Susan Schulten, A History of America in 100 Maps (University of Chicago Press, 2018), pp. 72-73, https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226458755.001.0001.

G. Malcolm Lewis, "Maps, Mapmaking, and Map Use by Native Americans,"  in David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis, eds. The History of Cartography, vol. 2, book 3: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), pp. 99-100, 173. https://press.uchicago.edu/books/HOC/HOC_V2_B3/Volume2_Book3.html

Ian Chambers, “A Cherokee Origin for the ‘Catawba’ Deerskin Map (c.1721),” Imago Mundi 65, no. 2 (2013): 207–16. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23480779.

For more information on the stories and associations with which the Cherokee and the English made sense of one another, see:
Chambers, Ian. 2015. “The Empire Visits the Metropolis: The Red Atlantic, Spatial Habitus and the Cherokee.” Atlantic Studies 12 (1): 67–89. doi:10.1080/14788810.2014.963782. 

Thanks again to Professor Susan Schulten for directing me to research on this map.

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Image 17 of 70 | e559 | i26383 | 4788x8276px Joan and Cornelius Blaeu, Atlas Frontispiece, 1640. From the collection of Rich Breiman.

Produced by Willem Blaeu's sons Joan and Cornelius after Willem's death, this is the title page of another Dutch atlas, depicting the four continents personified as women. 

You can see this and other atlas frontispieces from Rich Breiman's collection at E33: Frontispieces.

The female four continents became a common motif in maps of the 1600s and 1700s, most famously with Abraham Ortelius' 1606 Theatrum Orbis Terrarum

Image credits: Wikimedia Commons.
File:Bodleian Libraries, Ortelius, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Titlepage with four figures which embody the four known continents.jpg

My most important source for this image is:
Wintle, Michael. “Gender and Race in the Personification of the Continents in the Early Modern Period: Building Eurocentrism.” In Bodies and Maps: Early Modern Personifications of the Continents, eds. Maryanne Cline Horowitz and Louise Arizzoli, 39–66. BRILL, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004438033_004.

If you're interested in the Four Continents, see the rest of Bodies and Maps, in particular the chapters by Mark Rosen and Ann Rosalind-Jones on Braun and Hogenberg and on 16th-century costume books, respectively. 

To learn how Europeans shifted from personifying the continents as the Biblical sons of Noah to depicting them as four women, see:
Van Duzer, Chet. "New Personifications of the Continents: Jodocus Hondius, Nova et exacta totius orbis terrarum descriptio, 1608." In Frames That Speak: Cartouches on Early Modern Maps, 69-72. Mapping the Past 2. Boston: Brill, 2023.

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Image 18 of 70 | e559 | i26507 | 2700x1791px "Guiana is a country that hath yet her maidenhead." Walter Raleigh, 1595.

Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) was one of the most colorful of William Shakespeare's contemporaries. An explorer, politician, soldier, and schemer, he launched two expeditions of mixed success into what is mostly modern-day Guyana in 1594 and 1616. After returning from his first expedition in 1596, he published The discovery of the large, rich, and beautiful Empire of Guiana, with a relation of the great and golden city of Manoa (which the Spaniards call El Dorado), a delightfully self-serving work in which he exaggerates Guyana's natural wealth and his own success. 
This passage comes from near the conclusion of Raleigh's work. 

The screenshot comes from https://newworldjournal.org/british-guyana/discovery-of-guyana/. 

Walter Raleigh's full and colorful account of his expedition to Guyana is available at https://www.gutenberg.org/files/2272/2272-h/2272-h.htm and https://web2.qatar.cmu.edu/~breilly2/odyssey/Discovery_of_Guinea.pdf. 

For Raleigh's and other English explorers' gendered, rapacious attitudes toward Guyana, see Burnett, D. Graham. "Fabled Lands." In Mapping Latin America: A Cartographic Reader, eds. Jordana Dym and Karl Offen, 38-41. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011. 

I thank Susan Schulten for directing me to Jordana Dym's and D. Graham Burnett's work.

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Image 19 of 70 | e559 | i26384 | 7681x6677px Willem Blaeu, Americae Nova Tabula, 1635. From the collection of Rich Breiman.

Description written by Rich Breiman:

“Americae Nova Tabula” from ‘Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Sive Atlas Novis’, published in Amsterdam by Willem (Guillaume) Blaeu (1571-1638) in 1635.

Nine decorative views of important North and South American cities and harbors across the top, including Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Havana, Cusco, Cartagena and Santo Domingo and ten miniature engravings of Native Americans from various regions in their native costumes along the side panels. The map is also embellished with eight sailing ships, four sea monsters and vignettes in the interior of the continent showing Indian life.

Additions by Andrew Gu: 

For my sources on Lake Parime, I used:
Jordana Dym and Karl Offen, eds. Mapping Latin America: A Cartographic Reader (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011), 40, 109. 

For further reading on this map, see:
Breiman, Richard S. "My Favorite Map: Americae Nova Tabula by Willem Blaeu." Kalafia 2022, no. 1: 22-25. 

Thank you to Rich Breiman for helping me make sense of this map.

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Image 20 of 70 | e559 | i26490 | 4219x3752px Jean-Baptiste Nolin, II, L’Amerique dressée sur les relations les plus recentes, 1740. Library of Congress.

According to Professor Chet van Duzer, this map's two cartouches embody one European attitude toward Native Americans in the 17th and 18th centuries: what he memorably calls "Kill the cannibals and convert the rest." 

Source:

Chet van Duzer, Frames That Speak: Cartouches on Early Modern Maps, Mapping the Past 2 (Boston: Brill, 2023), 180-5.

Image Source: https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3290.ct007323

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Image 21 of 70 | e559 | i26499 | 5245x4776px [The Oztoticpac lands map], ca. 1540. Library of Congress. 

What could be more civilized than a legal dispute?

Image source: https://lccn.loc.gov/88690436.

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Image 22 of 70 | e559 | i26800 | 1920x1080px Juan de Zumárraga, Bishop and Inquisitor of New Spain

Image source: https://www.latinamericanstudies.org/juan-zumarraga.htm. 
This doesn't look like the most trustworthy website, but at the very least, the image gets across that he was a bishop and a Franciscan.

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Image 23 of 70 | e559 | i26780 | 10732x8322px William Channing Woodbridge, "Isothermal Chart," in Modern Atlas (1831). 

You can view the rest of this atlas on Pixeum at Exhibit 295, titled "Modern Atlas - 1831". 

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Image 24 of 70 | e559 | i26133 | 15000x9690px William Channing Woodbridge, "Moral and Political Chart of the Inhabited World," in Modern Atlas (1831). 

This map's full title (see the center-bottom of the image) is "Moral and Political Chart of the Inhabited World - Exhibiting the Prevailing Religion, Form of Government, Degree of Civilization, and Population of Each Country."

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Image 25 of 70 | e559 | i26801 | 1920x1080px Race is not natural.
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Image 26 of 70 | e559 | i26802 | 1920x1080px Acknowledgments
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Image 27 of 70 | e559 | i26901 | 1920x1080px Bibliography
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Image 28 of 70 | e559 | i26902 | 1920x1080px Bibliography: A-D

Bassett, Thomas J. “Cartography and Empire Building in Nineteenth-Century West Africa.” Geographical Review 84, no. 3 (1994): 316–35. https://doi.org/10.2307/215456.  

Chambers, Ian. “A Cherokee Origin for the ‘Catawba’ Deerskin Map (c.1721).” Imago Mundi 65, no. 2 (2013): 207–16. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23480779.  

Chambers, Ian. 2015. “The Empire Visits the Metropolis: The Red Atlantic, Spatial Habitus and the Cherokee.” Atlantic Studies 12 (1): 67–89. doi:10.1080/14788810.2014.963782.  

Cooley, Mackenzie. The Perfection of Nature: Animals, Breeding, and Race in the Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2022. 

Dathorne, O. R. “Europe Invents a New World.” In Imagining the World: Mythical Belief versus Reality in Global Encounters, 1–40. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin & Garvey, 1994. 

De Vorsey, Louis. “Silent Witnesses: Native American Maps.” The Georgia Review 46, no. 4 (1992): 709–26. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41400971.  

Dym, Jordana, and Karl Offen, eds. Mapping Latin America: A Cartographic Reader. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011. 

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Image 29 of 70 | e559 | i26903 | 1920x1080px Bibliography: E-H

Godlewska, Anne. “Map, Text and Image. The Mentality of Enlightened Conquerors: A New Look at the Description de l’Egypte.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20, no. 1 (1995): 5–28. https://doi.org/10.2307/622722.  

“Guinea, by Blaeu W. & J. 1635.” Sanderus Antique Maps & Books. Accessed June 12, 2024. https://sanderusmaps.com/our-catalogue/antique-maps/africa/old-antique-map-of-guinea-by-blaeu-w-j-20455.   

Harley, J. Brian. “Deconstructing the Map.” In Writing Worlds: Discourse, Text, and Metaphor in the Representation of Landscape, edited by Trevor J. Barnes and James S. Duncan, 231–247. New York: Routledge, 1992. 

Harley, J. Brian. “Maps, Knowledge, and Power.” In The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments, 50-81. Cambridge University Press, 1988. https://public.wsu.edu/~ericsson/Hartley_ch2.pdf.  

Heaton, Jacqueline. “The Relevance of Race and Classification in Terms of the Population Registration Act 30 of 1950 for Adoption in South Africa.” South African Law Journal 106, no. 713 (1989): 713–717. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/soaf106&i=727. 

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Image 30 of 70 | e559 | i26904 | 1920x1080px Bibliography: H-K

Heng, Geraldine. “Inventions/Reinventions: Race Studies, Modernity, and the Middle Ages.” In The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages, 15–54. Cambridge University Press, 2018. 

Horowitz, Maryanne Cline, and Arizzoli, Louise, eds. Bodies and Maps: Early Modern Personifications of the Continents. Boston: BRILL, 2020. ProQuest Ebook Central. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/willm/detail.action?docID=6426829&pq-origsite=primo#.  

Jacob, Christian. “Toward a Cultural History of Cartography.” Imago Mundi 48 (1996): 191–98. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1151273.  

Kalsbeek, Katherine, Michiel Roscam Abbing, and Charlotte Beck. “Unravelling a Myth: Tulp’s Chimpanzee and Rembrandt.” Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis (2022): 27-37. https://doi.org/10.48296/KvhR2022.03.   

Kilroy-Ewbank, Lauren. “Map of Cholula, from the relaciones geográficas.” In Smarthistory, May 6, 2021, accessed June 12, 2024. https://smarthistory.org/cholula-relaciones-geograficas/. 

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Image 31 of 70 | e559 | i26905 | 1920x1080px Bibliography: K-M

Klein, Mike. “When ‘Savages’ Roamed the Earth: Maps Perpetuating Bias and Bigotry in the 19th century.” Library of Congress Blogs. April 7, 2022. https://blogs.loc.gov/maps/2021/04/when-savages-roamed-the-earth-maps-perpetuating-bias-and-bigotry-in-the-19th-century/.  

Koslofsky, Craig, and Roberto Zaugg, eds. A German Barber-Surgeon in the Atlantic Slave Trade: The Seventeenth-Century Journal of Johann Peter Oettinger. University of Virginia Press, 2020. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1bhg23c.  

Lewis, G. Malcolm. ‘Maps, mapmaking, and map use by Native North Americans.” In The History of Cartography, vol. 2, book 3: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies, edited by David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis, 51–182. https://press.uchicago.edu/books/HOC/HOC_V2_B3/Volume2_Book3.html.  

Monmonier, Mark S. “Maps for Political Propaganda.” In How to Lie with Maps, 87–112. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. 

Muldoon, James. “Crusading and Canon Law.” In Palgrave Advances in the Crusades, edited by Helen J. Nicholson, 37–57. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. 

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Image 32 of 70 | e559 | i26906 | 1920x1080px Bibliography: M-R

Mundy, Barbara E. “Mapping Babel: A Sixteenth-Century Indigenous Map from Mexico.” The Appendix, October 3, 2013. https://theappendix.net/issues/2013/10/mapping-babel-a-sixteenth-century-indigenous-map-from-mexico. 

Nirenberg, David. “Was there race before modernity? The example of ‘Jewish’ blood in late Medieval Spain.” In Neighboring Faiths: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism in the Middle Ages and Today, 232–264. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014. https://culturahistorica.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/nirenberg_race_jewish_blood.pdf. 

Paper, Thomas M. “Modern Atlas - 1831.” Pixeum exhibit story, June 24, 2024. https://www.pixeum.org/s/UalGM1hs8r. 

Posel, Deborah. “What’s in a name? Racial categorizations under apartheid and their afterlife.” Transformation: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa 47 (2001): 50–74. https://d.lib.msu.edu/tran/445/OBJ/download. 

Rutherford, Adam. How to Argue With a Racist: What Our Genes Do (and Don’t) Say About Human Difference. New York: The Experiment, 2020. 

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Image 33 of 70 | e559 | i26907 | 1920x1080px Bibliography: S-V

Schulten, Susan. A History of America in 100 Maps. University of Chicago Press, 2018. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226458755.001.0001.  

Sebastiani, Silvia. "A ‘monster with human visage’: The orangutan, savagery, and the borders of humanity in the global Enlightenment." History of the Human Sciences 32, no. 4 (2019): 80–99. 

Seth, Vanita. “The Origins of Racism: A Critique of the History of Ideas.” History and Theory 59, no. 3 (September 2020): 343-368. https://earlymodern.yale.edu/sites/default/files/history_and_theory_-_2020_-_seth_-_the_origins_of_racism_a_critique_of_the_history_of_ideas.pdf.  

Smith, Cynthia. “The Blaeu Family of Cartographers: A Resource Guide.” Library of Congress. Last modified June 17, 2022. https://guides.loc.gov/blaeu.  

Stone, Jeffrey C. “Imperialism, Colonialism and Cartography.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 13, no. 1 (1988): 57–64. https://doi.org/10.2307/622775.  

Van Duzer, Chet. Frames That Speak: Cartouches on Early Modern Maps. Mapping the Past 2. Boston: Brill, 2023.

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Image 34 of 70 | e559 | i26791 | 1920x1080px Appendix

All the images that didn't make it into the final cut. Could be useful for questions. 

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Image 35 of 70 | e559 | i26908 | 1920x1080px Definition: Racism (David Nirenberg)
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Image 36 of 70 | e559 | i26909 | 1920x1080px Definition: Race (David Nirenberg)
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Image 37 of 70 | e559 | i26910 | 1920x1080px Definition: Race (Geraldine Heng)
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Image 38 of 70 | e559 | i26381 | 984x1500px John Ross - 1872DUPLICATED

From E495: Native Americans: Rich Breiman Collection.

This one from Kiechel Art. Rich had a copy of this but sold it. 5/27/24

https://kiechelart.com/product/john-ross/ 

[ 2024-05-27 22:11:05 ]

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Image 39 of 70 | e559 | i26488 | 3208x1971px South Carolina Deerskin Map, 1721, Detail from Original Version in the British Library.

This is one of Governor Nicholson's two "original" copies of the map presented to him in 1721, now stored at the British Library.

Unlike the LOC's copy, this shows an ear of corn (previously identified as a tail) falling out of Selu's skirt.

Screenshotted from Ian Chambers, “A Cherokee Origin for the ‘Catawba’ Deerskin Map (c.1721),” Imago Mundi 65, no. 2 (2013): plate 2. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23480779

Due to the cyberattack on the British Library, I wasn't able to get a direct image of the original map.

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Image 40 of 70 | e559 | i26508 | 3024x4032px [ 2024-06-14 07:00:36 ] De Bry, Admiranda narratio, page with cannibals

[ 2024-06-14 07:00:36 ] Image by Andrew Gu. From Williams College Special Collections.
https://librarysearch.williams.edu/permalink/01WIL_INST/1pb6e7c/alma991010659889702786. 

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Image 41 of 70 | e559 | i26500 | 969x700px [ 2024-06-12 18:24:42 ] Guaman Poma Map of the Inca Empire, c. 1615
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Image 42 of 70 | e559 | i26416 | 6517x4907px E507 - Maps - Americas - 0387DUPLICATED

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Image 43 of 70 | e559 | i26382 | 6729x5477px DUPLICATED from E189 – Africa Maps – 0299

The African continent as perceived in 1814. Produced for one of the publications of the colourful London bookseller, Thomas Tegg of Cheapside.
Copper line engraving on paper. Original hand colour. Engraved surface 194 x 234mm (approx. 7-1/2” x 9-1/8”).

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Image 44 of 70 | e559 | i26385 | 5562x4113px DUPLICATED from E34 - Africa Nova Descriptio 1635 

“Africae Nova Descriptio” from ‘Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Sive Atlas Novis’, published in Amsterdam by Willem (Guillaume) Blaeu (1571-1638) in 1635.

This is one of the most decorative and popular of all the early maps of Africa. Nine African city maps and views are depicted in detailed vignettes along the top, including: Tanger (Tangiers), Ceuta (south of the Strait of Gibraltar in modern day Morocco), Alger (Algiers), Tunis, Alexandria, Alcair (an ancient city in Egypt along the Nile), Mozambique, S. Georgius dell Mina (?) and Canaria (Canary Islands). The map is decorated with nine sailing ships, seven in the Atlantic and two in the Indian Ocean; all flying Dutch flags. Flying fish, whales and sea monsters are seen in the oceans, while elephants, monkeys, lions, ostriches and camels are depicted wandering all over the continent. Ten decorative vignettes of costumed couples from various parts of Africa are present along the sides. The Nile is shown according to Ptolemy with its sources arising in Lake Zaire (unclear if this is modern day Lake Victoria of a factious body of water).

Duplicate description.

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Image 45 of 70 | e559 | i26498 | 8352x6094px [ 2024-06-12 18:02:20 ]Map of Cholula, Relaciones Geográficas, 1581

[ 2024-06-12 18:02:20 ]

 

“Map of Cholula, Relaciones Geográficas,” VistasGallery, accessed June 12, 2024, https://vistasgallery.ace.fordham.edu/items/show/1778.

 

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Image 46 of 70 | e559 | i26428 | 25450x10012px Samuel Augustus Mitchell, Mitchell's School Geography, 1845, pages 42-45. Williams College Special Collections.

An excerpt from an 1845 American school textbook, focusing here on the five "Races of Men" and a related set of categories: the five "Stages of Society."

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Image 47 of 70 | e559 | i26386 | 6609x8042px 1728 Colossal Kings Plate 1 DUPLICATED

“Colossus Monarchic. Statua Danielis” (Colossal Kings) from 'Atlas Novus.Tabulae Geographicae’ by Matthaus Seutter the elder (1678-1757), Plate 1, 1728. One of the most interesting cartographic curiosities in Seutter`s famous series of large symbolic figures. Colossus, with sword and scepter, represents Daniel`s interpretation of King Nebuchadnezzar`s dream. The greatest empires in history are engraved on his breastplate. Oriental empires on the left leg and western ones listed on the right leg. Mythical animals also representing the great monarchies flank the figure.

Fantastic double page allegorical map of a colossus figure representing the great world empires as Daniel interpreted in Nebuchadnezzar's dream. Nebuchadnezzar was a powerful Babylonian king who conquered Judea during the sixth century B.C. The Book of Jeremiah calls Nebuchadnezzar the "destroyer of nations" (Jeremiah 4:7) and gives an account of the second siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) and the looting and destruction of the First Temple (Book of Jeremiah Jeremiah 39:1–10; 52:1–30).

Nebuchadnezzar is an important character in the Old Testament Book of Daniel.[8] Daniel 1 introduces Nebuchadnezzar as the king who takes Daniel and other Hebrew youths into captivity in Babylon, to be trained in "the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans". In Nebuchadnezzar's second year, Daniel interprets the king's dream of a huge image as God's prediction of the rise and fall of world powers, starting with Nebuchadnezzar's kingdom (Daniel 2). Nebuchadnezzar twice admits the power of the God of the Hebrews: first after Yahweh saves three of Daniel's companions from a fiery furnace (Daniel 3) and secondly after Nebuchadnezzar himself suffers a humiliating period of madness, as Daniel predicted.

The plate depicts the four kingdoms as Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman.

The warrior stands stolidly on the coast in martial gear with a scepter in his right hand. The monarchical successions of the world's major civilizations are listed on his armor and legs. He is surrounded by three mythical creatures and a bear who represent the greatest empires: Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome. A scroll cartouche in the upper left lists the Roman gods in Latin. An identical scroll has been attached as a tab, with the same information in German.

Duplicate description.
 

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Image 48 of 70 | e559 | i26387 | 6667x8001px 1728 Colossal Kings Plate 2 DUPLICATED

“Statua Regum Europaeorum P.C. N. Nomina Continen” (Colossal Kings) from 'Atlas Novus.Tabulae Geographicae’ by Matthaus Seutter the elder (1678-1757), Plate 2, 1728.

Statua Regum Europaeorum P.C.N Nomina Continens shows a king, flanked on one side by crowns, sceptres, weapons, musical instruments, etc, and on the other by coats of arms. On his body and armor are listed the kings of the different European nations from the first to the seventeenth century, with their star signs and dates of their death. To the left are twelve large armorials or coats-of-arms, with Germany at top.

This fascinating print elequently captures the ethic of the absolute monarchy that prevailed across Europe well into the 18th-century. The scene is dominated by the strong figure of a king, adorned with his crown and sceptre.

Allegorically, the scene is meant to show that all of the power, and indeed the political identity, of almost all European states was vested in one man; the Absolute Monarch. While Seuttter's depiction is original in style, it follows a long line of anthropomorphic portrayals of power as invested in the body of the king. Perhaps the earliest such representation is Sebastian Munster's 'Lady Europa' (1540); depicting Europe embodied by a Queen, representing the Spanish Empire. Another evocative image can be found on the frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan (1651), which was created by the 17th century French master engraver/etcher Abraham Bosse. The image figuratively depicts the powers of all of a kingdom's subjects being subsumed to form the the body of a great kingly power.

Duplicate description

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Image 49 of 70 | e559 | i26388 | 11902x10339px E374 - Various Rich Breiman - i16261-16262DUPLICATED

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[ 2024-03-25 15:14:48 ]

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[ 2024-03-25 14:55:47 ]

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Image 54 of 70 | e559 | i26419 | 10504x8871px E504 - Various Rich Breiman - i0700214DUPLICATED

[ 2024-03-25 14:37:15 ]

Rich Breiman:
"It was published in Nuremberg, Germany in 1731. his early 18th century hand-colored copperplate map of North and South America entitled "Totius Americae Septentrionalis Et Meridionalis Novissima Repraesentatio" was created by Johann Baptist Homann and published in Nuremberg, Germany, between 1710 and 1731. The map details cities, forts, mountains, forests and lakes, as well as districts. There is a decorative cartouche in the lower left which depicts a volcano, scenes representing the people in their native costumes, as well as animals and plants of the Americas. A village is seen in the background on the left. A second smaller decorative cartouche in the upper right includes text and a series of allegorical figures. A large portion if the north central and western portions of North America is left without detail, because the region was largely unexplored at the time this map was created. The map also shows "Terra Esonis Incognita", representing a mythical continuous land bridge from North America to Asia, a northwest passage. The map preceded the French and Indian War, when the French were the dominant influence in the North and the Spanish in the South. The Great Lakes are just now being explored in detail. Many Native American names are used for regions and landmarks on the map. The beautifully hand-colored map is printed on laid chain-linked paper with wide margins. The sheet measures 21" high and 24" wide. There is a vertical center fold, as issued, with mild adjacent discoloration, where the map was bound in the atlas. There is a short area of separation of the lower portion of the center fold, which has been expertly reinforced, as has a small flap at the lower edge of the sheet on the right. There are two small areas of discoloration at the edge of the upper margin, but the map is otherwise in very good condition. Johann Baptist Homann (1663-1724) was a mapmaker who founded a respected and prolific publishing company, which produced some of the most important maps and atlases of the 18th century. The publishing business continued long after his death as Homann Heirs. Homann lived his entire life in Bavaria, particularly in Nuremberg. Initially, Johann trained to become a priest before converting to Protestantism and working as a notary. In 1702, Johann founded a publishing house that specialized in engravings. The firm flourished, becoming the leading map publisher in Germany and an important entity in the European map market. Homann's maps were prized for their high level of accuracy and detailed information. In 1715, Johann was named Imperial Geographer to the Holy Roman Empire by Charles VI and made a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London. Most importantly for his business, his reputation and contacts gained him imperial printing privileges which protected his publications and recommended him to customers. Homann died in Nuremberg on July 1, 1724, leaving behind a legacy of influential cartography and geographic scholarship. His publishing house continued under the management of his son, Johann Christoph Homann, and remained one of the most important map publishers of the 18th century."

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Image 56 of 70 | e559 | i26496 | 3029x1931px [ 2024-06-12 17:54:41 ]Nuremberg Map of Tenochtitlan, 1524

[ 2024-06-12 17:54:41 ]

From Wikimedia Commons.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Tenochtitlan,_1524.jpg.

 

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Image 57 of 70 | e559 | i26497 | 5248x7392px [ 2024-06-12 17:57:11 ]Foundational Plan of San Juan de la Frontera, 1562

[ 2024-06-12 17:57:11 ]

 

“Foundational Plan of San Juan de la Frontera,” Vistas Gallery, accessed June 12, 2024, https://vistasgallery.ace.fordham.edu/items/show/1726.

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Image 58 of 70 | e559 | i26509 | 4032x3024px [ 2024-06-14 07:02:59 ] De Bry, Admiranda Narratio, Pictish Warrior

[ 2024-06-14 07:02:59 ] Image by Andrew Gu. Williams College Special Collections. 

Link: https://librarysearch.williams.edu/permalink/01WIL_INST/1pb6e7c/alma991010659889702786

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Image 59 of 70 | e559 | i26511 | 1460x1150px [ 2024-06-14 07:22:41 ] "Ould Virginia," 1624

[ 2024-06-14 07:22:41 ]
From page 18a of John Smith, The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles: With the Names of the Adventurers, Planters, and Governours From Their First Beginning Ano: 1584. To This Present 1624. With the Procedings of Those Severall Colonies and the Accidents That Befell Them in All Their Journyes and Discoveries. Also the Maps and Descriptions of All Those Countryes, Their Commodities, People, Government, Customes, and Religion Yet Knowne. Divided Into Sixe Bookes. By Captaine Iohn Smith, Sometymes Governour in Those Countryes & Admirall of New England. London: Printed by I.D. and I.H. for Michael Sparkes, 1624.

https://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/smith/ill1.html

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Image 63 of 70 | e559 | i26430 | 26366x14395px Waldseemuller Carta Marina 1516 whole image from CVD 2023-09-08DUPLICATED

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Image 64 of 70 | e559 | i26501 | 2907x2407px [ 2024-06-12 18:52:45 ] A compleat description of the province of Carolina in 3 parts : 1st, the improved part from the surveys of Maurice Mathews & Mr. John Love : 2ly, the west part by Capt. Tho. Nairn : 3ly, a chart of the coast from Virginia to Cape Florida, c. 1711

[ 2024-06-12 18:52:45 ]

Crisp, Edw, Thomas Nairne, John Harris, Maurice Mathews, and John Love. A compleat description of the province of Carolina in 3 parts: 1st, the improved part from the surveys of Maurice Mathews & Mr. John Love: 2ly, the west part by Capt. Tho. Nairn: 3ly, a chart of the coast from Virginia to Cape Florida. [London: Edw. Crisp, ?, 1711] Map. https://www.loc.gov/item/2004626926/.

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Image 65 of 70 | e559 | i26491 | 4272x3704px [ 2024-06-11 23:33:44 ]John Smith, “New England,” 1616.

[ 2024-06-11 23:33:44 ]

information from Susan Schulten, A History of America in 100 Maps.

 

Map reproduction courtesy of the Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center at the Boston Public Library. 

https://collections.leventhalmap.org/search/commonwealth:3f462s64w. 

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Image 66 of 70 | e559 | i26492 | 9481x7248px [ 2024-06-11 23:35:35 ] William Hubbard and John Foster, “A Map of New-England, Being the first that ever was here cut,” 1677.

[ 2024-06-11 23:35:35 ]

Info from Susan Schulten, A History of America in 100 Maps.

Map reproduction courtesy of the Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center at the Boston Public Library.

Link: https://collections.leventhalmap.org/search/commonwealth:3f462s808. 

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Image 67 of 70 | e559 | i26487 | 5220x3985px [ 2024-06-11 18:57:23 ]

[ 2024-06-11 18:57:23 ]

from https://www.loc.gov/item/78694920/.

"Mathematician Thomas Harriot and artist John White were among the first English colonists settled at Roanoke Island in 1585. Their manuscript map of the Outer Banks was revised and engraved by Theodore de Bry, and published in 1590 to accompany his reprint of Harriot's A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. The map covers the North Carolina Coastal Plain, including the Chesapeake Inlet, Pamlico and Albermarle sounds, and Roanoke Island, and extends westward to the sources of the rivers of the sounds. It includes information derived directly from Native American sources and observations, such as the names and locations of Native American villages, most palisaded as in their actual construction; pictorial representations of individual Indians, taken from White's drawings; native canoes in Pamlico Sound; emblems for various species of trees; and a heavily-forested mountain region that serves as the headwaters of the Roanoke River."

Description from https://guides.loc.gov/native-american-spaces/cartographic-resources/indian-maps-mapping.

 

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Image 68 of 70 | e559 | i26493 | 2492x2135px [ 2024-06-11 23:47:19 ]Don Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco, “Plano geographico de la tierra descubierta y demarcada,” 1778.

[ 2024-06-11 23:47:19 ]

Info from Susan Schulten, A History of America in 100 Maps.

Image courtesy of the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Special Collections.

Link: https://scholarworks.utrgv.edu/archgeneralnacion/2/. 

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Image 69 of 70 | e559 | i26502 | 1383x1665px [ 2024-06-12 22:32:14 ] Aikon Aushabuc's Gestural Map, 1761

[ 2024-06-12 22:32:14 ]

Screenshotted from Pages 68-69 of David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis, eds. The History of Cartography, vol. 2, book 3: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1998). 

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Making Race in Early American Maps

Content warning: 

  • Racist images
  • Depictions of nudity
  • References to sexual violence

Feel free to skip or step out at any time.

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Content Warning

  • Racist images
  • Depictions of nudity
  • References to sexual violence
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Disclaimer

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South African Population Registration Act of 1950, Section 1.

Section 1 (Definitions), page 277 of one of the South African apartheid regime's foundational laws.

This document (Act No. 30 of 1950, also known as the Population Registration Act, 1950) is available at South African History Online
As of June 24, 2024, it should be the first result of this search query in the South African History Online archives. 

For more information on the motivations behind the Population Registration Act and its impacts on South African society, see:
Posel, Deborah. “What’s in a Name? Racial Categorisations under Apartheid and Their Afterlife." Transformation: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa 47 (2001): 50-74. https://d.lib.msu.edu/tran/445/OBJ/download. 

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Making Race: A Definition

  • a project dedicated to making physical appearance communicate a set of values and behaviors that are (allegedly) passed down through reproduction.
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Razza

A Spanish word, razza first entered European vocabularies in the 1400s.

What did it mean?

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Thomas Blundeville, The foure chiefest offices belonging to horsemanship, 1609

Image by Andrew Gu. Book from Williams College Special Collections.
https://librarysearch.williams.edu/permalink/01WIL_INST/1faevhg/alma991010601079702786. 

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Bugatti or Lamborghini?

Which is which?

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Which horse is which?

These are a Spanish horse, a Flemish horse, and a North African horse. 

Which is which?

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Richard Blome, The gentlemans recreation, 1686. Williams College Special Collections.

Picture by Andrew Gu.

Manuals like this were designed to help noblemen understand their animal collections.

Link: https://librarysearch.williams.edu/permalink/01WIL_INST/1pb6e7c/alma991010716009702786. 

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American Colonial Maps: Our Window

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Thesis 

Native Americans and Europeans made sense of one another by referencing their own traditions around the Other.

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Willem Blaeu, Guinea, first published 1634. From the collection of Rich Breiman.

Courtesy of Rich Breiman, this is a 1634 map of "Guinea," or the West African coast, by the Dutch Cartographer Willem Blaeu and dedicated to "Nicolao" (Nicolaes) Tulp.

What does Blaeu choose to highlight as important in this map?

For more information about the Blaeu family of cartographers and Willem Blaeu's involvement in Dutch colonial projects, see:
Smith, Cynthia. "The Blaeu Family of Cartographers: A Resource Guide." Library of Congress. Last modified 17 June 2022. https://guides.loc.gov/blaeu. 

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Anonymous, "Homo sylvestris / Orang-outang," in Nicolaes Tulp, Observationum Medicarum, 1641.

This engraving, probably depicting the female Angolan chimpanzee brought to Amsterdam in 1630, accompanied Nicolaes Tulp's 1641 description of the "orang-outang." Later naturalists would republish this image over and over until it had become the European image of the chimpanzee. 

Looking at the chimpanzee perched atop the title in Blaeu's map, there's a good chance that Blaeu's and Tulp's engravers were using the same source image.

Sources:
Katherine Kalsbeek, Michiel Roscam Abbing, and Charlotte Beck, "Unravelling a Myth: Tulp’s Chimpanzee and Rembrandt," Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis (2022): 27-37, https://doi.org/10.48296/KvhR2022.03. 

Silvia Sebastiani, "A ‘monster with human visage’: The orangutan, savagery, and the borders of humanity in the global Enlightenment," History of the Human Sciences 32, no. 4 (2019): particularly pages 82-3.

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G. Malcolm Lewis, "Reconstruction of a Virginia Algonquian Cosmography," 1998. 

Due to their deliberate destruction by Europeans, their perishable materials, and their often-sacred status, most of the Native North American maps from the colonial period which are available today can only be seen through European eyes: either via travelers' descriptions or European government copies.

On the left is a model by map historian G. Malcolm Lewis based on descriptions from the English explorer (of Pocahantas fame) John Smith's 1607 adventures while under Algonquian captivity. Smith described a three-day ceremony of dancing and laying out circles denoting different boundaries of the community. 

On the right is a 1624 European depiction (to accompany John Smith's published adventures) of the same event. Much was lost in translation.

The right image comes from John Smith, The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles: With the Names of the Adventurers, Planters, and Governours from their First Beginning An° 1584 to This Present 1624 (London: Michael Sparkes, 1624). Professor Lewis copied this image from a photograph provided by the Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.  You can view the image in its full context on page 18a, "Ould Virginia," at https://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/smith/ill1.html. 

Source:
G. Malcolm Lewis, "Maps, Mapmaking, and Map Use by Native Americans," in David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis, eds. The History of Cartography, vol. 2, book 3: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies, 51-182 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), in particular pp. 51-55, 69-71. https://press.uchicago.edu/books/HOC/HOC_V2_B3/Volume2_Book3.html. 
The screenshot comes from page 70.

I thank Professor Susan Schulten for directing me toward G. Malcolm Lewis' work.

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South Carolina Deerskin Map, 1721, Library of Congress Copy.

The description for this map reads: “This map describing the situation of the Several Nations of Indians to the NW of South Carolina was copyed from a Draught drawn & painted on a Deer skin by an Indian Cacique and presented to Francis Nicholson Esq. Governour of South Carolina by whom it is most humbly Dedicated To His Royal Highness George Prince of Wales.”

Oriented with the Atlantic coast on the left and the bottom, this map depicts 13 Carolina Indian communities and the English colonies of Virginia and Charleston, South Carolina, as well as the relationships between them.

Earlier historians, namely Gregory A. Waselkov and Mark Warhus, have attributed this map to the Catawba Indians. However, in 2013, Professor Ian Chambers, then at the University of Idaho, made the case for a Cherokee origin. This exhibit follows Chambers' interpretation.

The map shown here is actually the Library of Congress' copy of an "original" copy stored in the British Library (next image).

Image from https://www.loc.gov/item/2005625337/.

Sources for this map:

Susan Schulten, A History of America in 100 Maps (University of Chicago Press, 2018), pp. 72-73, https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226458755.001.0001.

G. Malcolm Lewis, "Maps, Mapmaking, and Map Use by Native Americans,"  in David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis, eds. The History of Cartography, vol. 2, book 3: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), pp. 99-100, 173. https://press.uchicago.edu/books/HOC/HOC_V2_B3/Volume2_Book3.html

Ian Chambers, “A Cherokee Origin for the ‘Catawba’ Deerskin Map (c.1721),” Imago Mundi 65, no. 2 (2013): 207–16. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23480779.

For more information on the stories and associations with which the Cherokee and the English made sense of one another, see:
Chambers, Ian. 2015. “The Empire Visits the Metropolis: The Red Atlantic, Spatial Habitus and the Cherokee.” Atlantic Studies 12 (1): 67–89. doi:10.1080/14788810.2014.963782. 

Thanks again to Professor Susan Schulten for directing me to research on this map.

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Joan and Cornelius Blaeu, Atlas Frontispiece, 1640. From the collection of Rich Breiman.

Produced by Willem Blaeu's sons Joan and Cornelius after Willem's death, this is the title page of another Dutch atlas, depicting the four continents personified as women. 

You can see this and other atlas frontispieces from Rich Breiman's collection at E33: Frontispieces.

The female four continents became a common motif in maps of the 1600s and 1700s, most famously with Abraham Ortelius' 1606 Theatrum Orbis Terrarum

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